- a substance that can soak up a liquid,
or to take in energy and retain it.
- an absorber does not reflect or transmit
particles or radiation that hit it. Aluminium
foil is an absorber of alpha particles.
A dark, dull surface is an absorber of infra-red
- is a term that refers to the properties
of a measuring instrument.
- an acid is a chemical that will neutralize
a base such as an alkali. There are
many different kinds of acid. Lemons
are sour because they contain citric acid. Acid in vinegar is called acetic acid.
It is a substance that disolves in water
to form a solution with a pH below 7.
An acid contains hydrogen which can be replaced
by a metal to form a salt. When an
acid dissolves in water H+(aq) ions are
formed. A strong acid completely ionises
in water and a weak acid only partly ionises.
Common strong acids include hydochloric
acid, HCl, sulphuric acid, H2SO4 and nitric
acid, HNO3. A common weak acid is
ethanoic acid, CH3COOH.
- is a kind of pollution. Sulphur
and nitrogen oxides are produced from the
burning of fossil fuels. When they
escape into the atmosphe, they form sulphuric
and nitric acids. Thes acids can have
effects on our environment, e.g. erode stonework,
lower the pH of lakes and rivers killing
our wildlife, and cause damage to trees.
- made to stick like glue.
is a mixture of gases.
- is a metal oxide or hydroxide (base) that
dissolves in water to form a solution with
a pH greater than 7. An alkali is
neutralised by an acid to form a salt and
water. Common alkalis include sodium
hydroxide, NaOH, potassium hydroxide, KOH,
calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 and ammonium
- is a metal made by melting and mixing two
or more metals together, e.g. brass is a
mixture of copper and zinc and bronze is
an alloy of copper and tin.
- are animals that live in water and on
land. They have smooth, moist skins
and lay their eggs in water.
- a pair of sensory organs found on the
heads of insects.
- are the things (equipment) needed to carry
out an experiment.
belonging to , or living in water.
- an atom is the smallest particle (unit
of matter) of an element which can exist
and be part of a chemical reaction (a source
of nuclear energy). The tiniest part
of a substance. Atomic is the use of atomic
bombs or energy.
- are very small single-celled organisms
with no nucleus.
- is an instrument which is used to measure
- branches that form from the hollow shaft
(Rachis) of a feather. When birds
preen (groom) their feathers they spread oils over
them which 're-hooks' the barbules.
- a battery consists of a number of electrical
cells. These cells are usually connected
in series to give a highter voltage than
that from a sinlge cell.
- solid rock immediatley beneath the surface
- is a material that can rot and decay away
quickly after we have used it.
- to study biology you will need to know
the 7 life processes. A memory trick
to remember what the life processes are
is 'MRS GREN'.
M - Movement - the moving parts
of an organism
R - Reproduction - Producing offspring
S - Sensitivity - Reacting and
responding to the environment
G - Growth - Increasing is size
R - Respiration - Turning food
E - Excretion - Getting rid of
N - Nutrition - Getting food to
- are animals that have feather and wings.
They lay eggs with hard shells and usually
- Something that is bound, fastened or joined
- interwoven hair and thread, or other fibres
- part of the root of a plant which resembles
a ball (e.g. onion).
- is a gas burner used in a lab during experiments.
- a hanging cover forming a shelter.
- are animals that eat other animals.
- is something that alters the speed (speeds
up) of a chemical reaction or change without
being used up at the end of it or permanently
- one of the smallest parts of a plant or
- is one or more conducting paths between
the two electrodes of a cell or battery
- the distinguishing features or quality
- are the substances used in chemistry
- a chemist needs to be able to identify
acids and alkalis. Universal Indicator
can be used to show the pH of a substance.
- is to sort things into different groups.
- the weather conditions of an area (e.g.
the hot Siberian desert, the coldness of
- is a substance that has two or more elements
- describes the shape of a lens or other
object where the center is thinner than
- things that can be worked out from doing
an experiment (making a decision). To draw
to a close, to finish or conclude with an
explanation, judgement or opinion based
- is the change from a gas to a liquid or
- are relating to or part of trees or shrubs
that do not have flowers and their seeds
are made in cones.
- a degree of thickness or smoothness of
- the things that you try to keep the same in an experiment or investigation.
- is the wearing away of the surface of
a metal by chemical reactions with oxygen
and water. Rusting is one example
- a solid with a symmetrical arrangement
of faces, usually bright and clear.
is a flow of electric charge. The
current is a metallic conductor is due to
a flow of negatively charged electrons.
- a collection of observations, measurements
- the breaking down of parts from a whole
- to decay or rot, wasting away.
- made up of very closely packed particles.
- is to make a liquid weaker or thinner
by adding more liquid, usually more water.
- is the splitting of white light into the
seven colors of the visible spectrum - rainbow.
- is the process that occurs when a solute
is added to a solvent and the solute disappears.
The particles of the solute fit between
the particles of the solvent. The
solute can be recovered by the evaporation
process. To mix a solid with a liquid
so it becomes a liquid as well. To melt,
to become a liquid (ice melting, sugar disolving
in hot tea).
- this is to separate a liquid from other
liquids by boiling it and condensing the
steam. A substance that has been through
an evaporation and condensing process.
- is the planet that we inhabit. In
electricity, the term refers to an electrical
connection to the Earth.
- is the sum total of all the living organisms
and non-living factors in an environment
and the way they interact. The relationship
between the environment, its animals and
- Eider is a duck which has very soft feathers,
eiderdown is the down (feathers) from this
- is a pure substance made of one kind of
atom. It cannot be split up into anything
simpler without losing its characteristics.
A substance that cannot be separated into
- is transfered by heating by; radiation,
conduction and convection. The amount
of energy transfered is measured in joules.
- the conditions or surroundings in which
people and animals live.
- is a substance that speeds up a chemical
reaction in the body (a biological catalyst).
Each enzyme works best at a particular temperature
- is to wear away.
- is the process where rocks are worn away.
- to decide if you have done something the
best way and seeing what you could improve.
- is the process in which a liquid changes
to a vapour, due to particles leaving the
surface of the liquid. A liquid turns
to a gas. Changing from a liquid or
a solid into vapours (gas).
- is anything that gives a reason to believe
- is when the size of a substance increases
due to being heated. The particles
gain energy and move further apart.
- a test to find something out.
- is a very rapid reaction accompanied by
a large expansion in gases.
- any material made of fibers or yarn which
has been woven or knitted together.
Fair Test -
is controlling some of the things used or
done in a test so they do not change.
An experiment in which only one variable
is changed at a time to allow a fair comparison.
- is tightly matted fabric made of wool
which has had the fibers worked together
- a plant with strong stems, roots and leaves
and do not have seeds.
- to provide a plant with pollen to bring
are single stands of fiber.
- is to separate solids (that do not dissolve)
- are cold-blooded animals that live in
water, they have a backbone, scaly skin,
tails and fins for swimming and gills for
- a substance or material that easily sets
- any plant that produces flowers and
- is a push or pull. Force is measured
in units called newtons (N).
- is a way of writing scientific information
using letters, numbers and signs.
- occurs when two surfaces move over each
other. Air resistance
and water resistnace are friction forces
caused by the movement of something through
the air or the water.
is when you cool something to a very low
temperature and it usually forms ice.
- is the special purpose or use of something.
- is a group of millions of stars held together
by gravity, like the Milky Way.
- is a state of matter in which the particles
move rapidly and are very spread out.
- is the force of attraction between any
two bodies. It increases with increasing
mass of the bodies and decreases if they
are further apart.
- is a place where an organism lives. It
is the natural home of a plant or animal.
- are animals that eat only plants.
- is warm dampness, it is a measure of the
amount of water in the air.
- bits of decaying plants and animals found
- (of rock) is the matter formed as moulten
(entremely hot liquid) rock cools and hardens.
- is a chemical that can show if a substance
is acidic or alkaline by changing color.
Color turns red in acid and blue in alkali.
- is the passing of a liquid or gas through
a substance by means of a filter.
- this is when a solid is unable to dissolve
into a liquid.
- halts the passage of electricity, heat
or sound through an object or substance.
- are animals without a backbone, such as
- is to look for clues and try to work out what they mean.
- is the unit for measuring energy or work.
- is a tube filled with colored paper, which
is lined with mirrors placed at different
angles. Turning the tube will create
amazing patterns for you to see through
a small hole at the end of the tube.
- is a fibrous protein found in hair and
- is the kind of energy in moving things.
- is an insect that is still in its caterpillar
is a flat green blade attached to the stem
of a plant.
- is a mutualistic relationship between
a fungus and an alga (simple plant).
They can be seen as crusty patches on tree
trunks and walls.
- is a state of matter in which the particles
are close together but randomly arranged.
The particles can move over each other.
- applies to any object or material that
is repelled or attracted by a magnet.
Magnetic materials include iron, steel,
cobalt and nickel.
- is an area where a magnetic material experiences
a force. Magnetic fields exist around
permanent magnets, electromagnets and electric
- to be magnified. To increase the
size of an object to make it bigger than
it actually is.
- are animals that are warm-blooded, usually
have fur or hair and feed their young with
milk from their mother.
- is the material that something is made
- is when a solid changes to a liquid at
the melting point by heating.
- is when the temperature at which a solid
changes to a liquid.
- is an instrument that measures the volume
of a liquid.
- (of rock) is a complete change from its
original state caused by heat and pressure.
- is an orderly way of doing something.
- is a scientific study of method.
A system of methods used in a particular
- are very small living things, usually
only one cell big. A tiny organism
that can only be seen with a microscope.
Some microbes can cause disease.
- is the spiral galaxy of stars which the
Earth is part of.
- are miniature or very small animals such
- is two or more substances mixed together
without actually joining them so that they
can be separated again.
- is a group of atoms joined together.
- a plant that has weak roots, thin,
delicate leaves and do not have seeds.
- is the shedding or casting off of feathers,
hair, fur and skin.
- is the sweet juice of flowers from which
bees make their honey.
- Acids react with bases, alkalis, reactive
metals and carbonates. This is called
a neutralisation reaction.
+ Alkali -> Salt +
Acid + Base
-> Salt + Water
Acid + Metal
-> Salt + Hydrogen
Acid + Carbonate
-> Salt + Water + Carbon
- is an atomic particle found in the nucleus.
It is similar in mass to a proton but has
- is the unit of force.
active during the night.
- the things that can be seem, watched
during an experiment and the taking
of notes to record facts based on the
experiment. Try using all your
senses to notice what is happening.
- are animals that eat both animals and
- does not allow light through.
- the curved path taken by an object
that moves round another object like a planet
around the Sun.
- (of animal, plant) a section or piece
resembling a living creature in behaviour
- are the extremely tiny parts (substances)
that scientists believe everything is made
- is a material which allows water or liquids
to flow through.
- is the process from which plants use or
changes sunlight into energy from the sun
to make their own food. This energy
is their food which contains oxygen and
glucose. [carbon dioxide + water =
glucose + oxygen] (also see photosynthesis definitions page)
- is when you mix two substances and their
particles become jumbled up together.
They do not necessarily combine chemically
unless the atoms in the molecules are rearranged
- this change is a physical change only.
This new substance is called a mixture and
can usually be separated quite easily.
- a physicist needs to get units right in
Quantity S.I. Units
- a thin glass or plastic tube used to measure
- is a large body that orbits a star.
- are huge sections of the Earth's crust
which float on the mantle.
- in magnetism, the strongest part of a
magnet. The pole of a magnet that points
towards magnetic North is called its North
- is to fertilise by the transfer of plant
pollen. The wind, birds and bees can
pass pollens around.
- is an animal which hunts and kills other
animals for their food.
- to say what you think is going to happen
in an experiment or investigation.
is a number of actions for making or doing
- are what a material or substance is like
and how it behaves. Describes
how a substance behaves. It can
describe any piece of the material (for
example if a material is strong or soft).
- are nitrogenous compounds that are essential
- is an atomic particle found in the nucleus.
It is similar in mass to the neutron but
has a positive charge.
(of feather) is the hollow shaft and network
of hooks and barbules belonging to a feather.
- is a narrow beam of light.
- is something that happens in response
to something else.
- is the time that elapses between an event
occurring and aperson responding to the
- is when something is used again in a system.
- is to bounce something back from a surface.
- is the change in direction when light
or other wave motion rebounds at a boundary
between two materials.
- is the change in speed when light or other
wave motions passes from one material into
another. The change in speed causes a change
in wavelength and may cause a change in
- things that can be taken to be true.
- are animals that live mainly on
land and lay eggs with soft shell.
They have dry, scaly skin and crawls along
on their belly and have short legs.
- is an investigation or study to find out
facts in order to reac a conclusion.
- is something that remains behind or is
- is what happens at the end of an experiment.
is an animal with strong incisor (cutting
teeth at the front).
- is an oxidation process of iron and
steel. Iron and steel rust in the
presence of oxygen (air) and water.
Rust is hydrated iron(III) oxide.
Rust damages metal parts so it is important
to try to prevent it. One way is to
alloy the iron and steel with other metals
which resist rust. Stainless steel
is an alloy of iron wiht other metals such
as chromium and nickel. Tpresence
of these other metals protects the stainless
steel from corrosion and allows these metals
to be used as kitchen sinks and cutlery.
- must be worn to protect your eyes from any danger.
- is the marks on any measuring instrument.
the material that has been deposited by
wind or water. The matter that forms
at the bottom of a liquid.
- is when you separate a solid or a liquid
by using a sieve.
- calcium hydroxide.
- is the top layer of land on the Earth's
- is a star and all the objects that orbit
- is the liquid that is produced after you
have dissolved a solid into another liquid.
- chemical: is the mixture of two or more
substances, a solute dissolves in a
The substance made when a solid disappears
in a liquid. The process of solving
- is a sample of blood, urine or tissue
which is used for analysis.
Spectrum - the range of colors that make up white light is called the spectrum. White light is a mixture of colors. When splitting light throught a prism you can see the spectrum of colors.
- is a hanging formation of calcium carbonate
dripping down from the roof of a cave.
- is the opposite of a stalactite; as it
rises like a spike from the floor of a cave.
- is an astronomical object that generates
energy due to nuclear fusion. A star
gives out light and/or other forms of electromagnetic
- is an unbalanced charge that is not moving.
A common cause of static electricity is the
transfer of electrons when two objects are
rubbed together. The object that gains
electrons becomes charged negatively while
the object that loses electrons becomes
- is the long, thin, supportive central
part of a plant which bears a flower, fruit
is the Earth's star.
- is two halves that are mirror images of
each other like butterfly wings.
- is a substance or material which is not
made up of natural substances like cotton
or wool, but are man-made artifically from
- huge sections of the Earth's crust and
is a measure of how hot or cold an object
- is the appearance, feel and structure
of a substance.
- is an instrument used to measure temperature.
- a large wave caused by an underwater eathquake
or volcanic eruption.
- is everything that exists.
- are the things that can change during
an experiment. Something that
can vary during an experiment.
- are animals with a backbone.
- is how much room something takes up. It is measured in centimeters (cm3).
- energy that is not usefully transferred
- does not allow water to pass
- the distance from one wave peak to the
next wave peak along the waves.
- is a force due to gravity acting on an
- are used to detect broken bones.
very penetrating, short wavelength electromagnetic
Zero error - a systematic
error, often due to the measuring instrument
having an incorrect zero (forgetting that
the end of the ruler is not at zero).