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Kids Plant Life Facts and Information

Plant Life Processes

The study of plants is a branch of Biology.

Without green plants there would be no life on our planet Earth. 

Animals can move around to search for their food, but green plants must stay in one place and therfore make their own food.

Plants need light, air and water to grow.  They usually grow better in warm conditions.

plant in a pot

    Green Plants make food during the process of Photosynthesis   (Photo = Light and Synthesis = Making Something) or using sunlight. 

    Photosynthesis takes place in green leaves.

    Plants feed themselves by using the light to convert carbon dioxide and water into food and oxygen.  Catching light is therefore a very important part of the plants growing process. 

    Plants are built to go through a life cycle.  There are four main parts to a plant that complete the four life processes:

    • Flower -  the flower is necessary for the Reproduction.   This is where seeds are produced.  Seeds will grow into new plants when they are in the ground.  The flowers have color and smell to help attract insects. They make pollen (male sex cells) which join to the eggs (female sex cells). The pollen is carried by flying insects as they travel from flower to flower despositing of the pollen collected on them. Part of the flower then dies and what is left becomes the new fruit which contains the seeds. Seeds are scattered by the wind, by different animals and be being flicked out of their pods.  Scattered seeds often cover a wide area. If a seed falls slowly it has a better chance of being carried further by the wind.

    • Leaves - the leaves help plants to grow, they take in water, sunlight and carbon dioxide to make food for the plant.  There are little veins inside the leaves that carry the water and minerals to the stem of the plant.  Leaves are necessary for Nutrition (feeding). The green chlorophyll (is already in green leaves) in the leaves absorbs the sunlight to change carbon dioxide gas and water into food. This part of the life process is called photosynthesis.

    • Stem - the stem is necessary to Hold and Move the plant upright towards the sunlight. The stem supports the plant and carries water, mimerals and food between the roots, the leaves and the flowers. The stem has tiny tubes in it which take water and nutrients up the plant to the leaves and flowers.  It grows towards the sunlight.

    • Roots - the roots are necessary to help plants to grow, they take in water and minerals from the soil.  Roots are needed for Anchoring the plant.  The roots anchor the plant in the ground so it doesn’t blow away. The roots have root hairs (smaller roots) to spread out through the soil to soak up and absorb water and minerals from the soil. The roots are therefore needed for nutrition (feeding).  Some water is lost through the pores in the plants leaves. 

    With the right conditions of water, light, oxygen (air), minerals and temperature a plant can grow and produce food.

    The Life Cycle of a Plant

    Pollination - Getting Pollen to land on the sticky Stigma is called Pollination. Pollen is carried from the Stamens to the female stigma. Pollination occurs when pollen from the Stamens becomes attached to the Stigma.  Pollen is carried by the wind and by insects.  Some plants are self pollinating while other plants are cross pollination.

  • Fertilisation - Once pollination has occured, the pollen grain (male sex cell) and the egg (female sex cell) join together to become seeds.  The pollen grain travels down tube of the Stigma to the ovary where the eggs are.  The seeds develop when the male sex cells (pollen) fuse or join together with the female sex cells and become seeds - this is called Fertilisation.  Fertilisation is the joining of teh Pollen and the Egg to become a seed.

  • Seed - The fertilised egg becomes a seed.  As the flower (petals) dies it leaves behind a fruit with seeds.  The ovary contains seeds and becomes fruit.  Some fruits produced are soft and juicy while others are dry and tough.  It is now time for the seeds to get on with the important business of growing into new plants.

  • Seed Dispersal - the seeds need to spread out and be scattered so that they can grow with less competion from each other and from the parent plant to help stop the overcrowding.  Different seeds are dispersed in different ways.  Seeds can travel by the wind as the fruits are light and feathery so get blown.  Juicy or sticky fruits can be carried on animal fur, and some fruit skin (pod) dries up and splits open so the seeds shoot out by explosion. 

  • Germination - the seeds start to grow when they reach a suitable place. The seeds need three conditions to germinate properly; water, oxygen and warmth (WOW).  Germination is the when the baby plant (seed) starts to grow, teh seed cracks and a tiny root grows downwards into the soil. The seed grows and sprouts its main root from the nutrients it is collecting in the soil.  A tiny shoot grows up towards the light an then it develops green leaves so it can start making its own food through photosynthesis.
    (Seeds do not need light to germinate (to start to grow) because a seed has its own store of food.  This store of food helps it to grow until its leaves are developed).

  • Flower - the plant grows and develops a flower. Flowers may look different but they have similar parts and each part has a very important job to do in the life cycle of a flower.  Insects are attracted to the flowers by their bright colored petals and their scent.  The insects are looking for nectar and get covered in pollen and carry it to the female stigma.

Chlorophyll photosynthesis produces oxygen present in the Earth's atmosphere.  Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that happens in algae and plants. 

Photosynthesis is of great importance for our planet Earth and all its inhabitants because of its production of sugars, oxygen and foods.

Plants make food during the process of photosynthesis and all animals depend on plants for their food.

Some plants live in water and some plants live in the desert.

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